This literature review outlines factors contributing to disability stigma in low- and middle-income countries. Overviews of disability stigma in the six Disability Inclusive Development (DID) programme countries – Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania – are presented next. The review then looks at the literature on interventions to reduce disability stigma. Interventions aimed at addressing disability stigma in developing countries have been aimed at the intrapersonal and familial level; the interpersonal level; and the structural level.
This review examines the potential implications of not addressing mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) needs resulting from conflict throughout the life course, including on longer term mental and physical health, communities and families (including intergenerational effects), and overall human development (including education and participation in the workforce).
This rapid review synthesises evidence and literature on approaches that have worked in mainstreaming the disability agenda in WASH programming. It begins by exploring the overview of approaches to including disabled people in WASH programming and continues to discuss the barriers to access and consequences. In this section, there are specific and important WASH issues being emphasised including Menstural Hygiene Management (MHM), incontinence, Lymphatic Filariasis and Leprosy and high-density populations. Final section of the review discuss about practical guidance for inclusive WASH programming including the cost of inclusion that needs to be taken into consideration.
K4D helpdesk reports provide summaries of current research, evidence and lessons learned. This report was commissioned by the UK Department for International Development
This K4D helpdesk research report seeks to explore the current (2018) situation of persons with disabilities (PWD) in Jordan. It presents recent data on the state of PWD in Jordan, such as data on access to basic services for PWD. It also considers the political, social, cultural, and economic context for PWD in Jordan. Finally, it explores laws and policies relevant to the rights of PWD in Jordan. It considers the situation for Syrian refugees with disabilities with regards to the above themes. Where possible, the report presents data disaggregated by age and gender
This K4D helpdesk report identifies information since 2013 concerning:
- data on the state of persons with disabilities in Lebanon
- assessments of laws on the rights of persons with disabilities in Lebanon
- analyses of the political, social, cultural, and economic context for persons with disabilities in Lebanon
Issues particular to persons with disabilities amongst Syrian refugees within these aspects are identified where possible.
The state of knowledge and gaps are discussed.
This rapid review summarises the evidence on how to scale up inclusive approaches to complex social change. It looks at how to design scalable inclusive change interventions, as well as how to plan and manage the scale-up process. Focusing on interventions with the aim of reaching the most marginalised and transform social norms, it covers programmes aiming to deliver inclusive outcomes for women and girls (with a particular focus on preventing violence against women and girls) and persons with disabilities. To date, many interventions seeking to change harmful gender and disability norms have been implemented as small-scale projects. There are limited experiences of scale-up and fewer evaluations of these experiences. However, there are some documented case studies as well as emerging analysis that draw out lessons learned. From this evidence base, this rapid desk review identifies eight critical issues commonly highlighted as important considerations when scaling up inclusive change interventions:
1. Opportunities for systemic approach, including integrating political and community-level scale-up, and coordinating across multiple sectors and stakeholders
2. Political support for scale-up
3. Strategic choices: balancing reach, speed, cost, quality, equity, and sustainability
4. Catalysing change: tipping points, diffusion effects, and local champions
5. Locally grounded, participatory, and adaptive approaches
6. Long-term approaches with funding models to match
7. Cost-effective and financially feasible scale-up strategies
8. Measuring impact and sustainability.
Scale-up pathways are discussed including: horizontal, vertical, functional and organisational.
A number of case studies are given.
Turkey hosts the largest number of Syrian refugees, almost half of whom are women and girls. This rapid review looks at available evidence on how Syrian refugee women, girls, and people with disabilities have been affected by the response to the refugee crisis by a variety of actors, including the host government, international actors, and host communities
This K4D Emerging Issues report highlights research and emerging evidence that show how mobile-enabled services can help increase inclusion of persons with disabilities. The aim is to provide UK Government’s Department for International Development (DFID) policy-makers with the information required to inform policies that are more resilient to the future. This report provides a synthesis of the current evidence on how mobile technology and mobile-enabled services can help increase inclusion of persons with disabilities. It was originally planned that this report would also explore how mobile enabled technology might exacerbate existing inequalities. Some evidence was found to focus on the barriers to ICT that marginalised groups encounter, however, no evidence was found to focus on how mobile technology might exacerbate inequalities. As such, the report focuses on the positive impact that mobile technology has been shown to have in increasing the inclusion of persons with disabilities.
This report focuses specifically on evidence produced by academic research from low and middle income countries
This desk based review reports on the then current best estimates of psychosocial disability in the following countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Lebanon, Jordan, Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPTs), Iraq, Syria and Yemen. Factors influencing prevalence of psychosocial disability in each of these countries, and whether conflict was an important factor were considered. Prevalent forms of psychosocial disability and how might they differ by country were reviewed. How prevalence and form of psychosocial disability differ across the following demographic characteristics: gender, age, religion, ethnic group was addressed. The state of provision, both state and non-state, for those with psychosocial disabilities in these countries, and variation of eligibility and access to provision/services across demographics (e.g. age, gender, religion or ethnic group) were also considered.
Evidence on strategies/pathways for strengthening people with disabilities’ leadership in political and public life, at all levels of governance (formal and informal) is reviewed.
Topics discussed concerning participation in political and public life include: UNCRPD; barriers; strategies to support inclusive electoral and political processes; womens empowerment; capacity building and training; the role of disability movements and DPOs; affirmative action and quotas; election observation and increasing the visibility of people with disabilities
K4D helpdesk report
This desk-based research reports explores the experiences of people with disabilities of inclusion and marginalisation in North Africa, and whether this has had an impact on regional/national economies and wider prosperity.
On-line research was carried out to investigate which organisations (DPOs, NGOs, multilaterals, international financial institutions, other national governments etc.) are working on addressing disability issues in North Africa? The search was done mainly in English and to a lesser extent in French. No searches in Arabic were possible. The content is ordered from a multilateral level to the national level of the five countries involved: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia, and begins with summaries of the situation for people with disabilities in the five countries
This rapid review looks at examples of existing literature on the availability of assistive technologies and efforts to make these technologies more affordable and accessible in developing countries. Needs and access to assistive technologies are overviewed. The discussion of market characteristics of assistive technologies covers availability, affordability, quality, appropriate design, and awareness and demand. Efforts to increase the affordability and accessibility of assistive technology are discussed covering: The Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology (GATE); the WHO Priority Assistive Products List; and EYElliance and eye health initiatives. Market shaping and community based approaches are discussed in this context.
This is a K4D helpdesk report. This report was commissioned by the UK Department for International Development (DFID)
Decades of conflict in South Sudan, pre and post-independence in 2011, poverty and poor access to services have increased the rate of disability and rendered people with disabilities more marginalised and excluded as a result of the numerous attitudinal, environmental, and institutional barriers they face, and the lack of concerted efforts to include them. This rapid review identifies the available evidence on the experiences of people with disabilities living in South Sudan.
This review links to the need for inclusion of all people, in particular stressing the importance of those who are disabled, people in all age groups, and women. It is guided by the consideration of how the concept of ‘leave no one behind’ can be incorporated into infrastructure planning, development, implementation and evaluation. The report focuses on transport, electricity and water infrastructure.
People with disabilities have been identified as a particularly marginalised and at risk group within Somali society as a result of the numerous attitudinal, environmental, and institutional barriers they face, and the lack of concerted efforts to include them . This rapid review identifies available evidence on the experiences of people with disabilities living in Somalia. It was found that there are still numerous evidence gaps in relation to the experiences of people with disabilities living in Somalia.
"Disasters and armed conflicts can also increase the number of persons with disabilities as people acquire new impairments and/or experience a deterioration in existing impairments from injuries and/or limited access to health care and rehabilitation. For instance, a survey of Syrian refugees living in camps in Jordan and Lebanon found that 22 per cent had an impairment. However, accurate numbers can be hard to calculate due to lack of data disaggregation in humanitarian emergencies and differences in the way disability is defined and measured, while families may be reluctant to disclose disability due to fear of stigma and isolation. As a result, humanitarian programmes may inadequately document and consider the needs of persons with disabilities"
This short Operational Practice Paper from the Humanitarian Learning Centre offers lessons for disability inclusion in humanitarian response.
The aim of 'Voices of the Marginalised' is to bring the perspectives of those who live in poverty or who are highly marginalised, including those with disabilities, older people and people living with mental health problems, into post-2015 policymaking. Focusing on Bangladesh and Tanzania, people with disabilities and older people were asked to become researchers themselves, and were trained to collect and analyse stories from peers in rural and urban areas.
A 9-month study that looked at how market-based approaches can work for disabled women in Uganda to help lift them out of poverty.
Sightsavers, HelpAge International, ADD International and Alzheimer’s Disease International worked together with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) to bring the perspectives of those who live in poverty or who are highly marginalised into post-2015 policy making. The aim of the research was to understand better the experiences of social, political and economic exclusion of persons with disabilities and older people in Bangladesh from their own perspectives. Two groups (community and NGO) of peer researchers collected 70 stories from poor and/or excluded persons with disabilities and older people from each of the two sites: Bhashantek, an urban slum in Dhaka; and Cox’s Bazar, a rural area in southeast Bangladesh. From the stories collected and analysed in workshops, the peer researchers identified 13 priority areas that affect persons with disabilities and older people: accidents and disasters; livelihoods; access to education; medical treatment; family support; exclusion and mistreatment; superstition; access to services; mobility; marriage; land; rape and sexual abuse; the role of grassroots community-based organisations. Recommendations from the researchers are made in each area. The peer research programme was evaluated and guidelines for its use are provided.
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion