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Estimated prevalence of disability and developmental delay among pre‐school children in rural Malawi: Findings from ‘Tikule Limodzi’, a cross‐sectional survey

MURPHY, Rachel
et al
January 2020

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This study measured and compared the prevalence of disability and developmental delay among children attending preschool centres in rural Malawi. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 48 preschool centres in Thyolodistrict, Malawi. Data were collected from parents or guardians of 20 children per centre. Disability was ascertained using the Washington Group/UNICEF Child Functioning Module. Child development was measured using the language and social domains of the Malawi Development Assessment Tool. A total of 960 children were enrolled; 935 (97.4%) children were assessed for disability and 933 (97.2%) for developmental delay; 100 (10.7%) children were identified as having a disability

 

Child Care Health Dev. 2020;46:187–194.
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12741

Integrating geospatial data and measures of disability and wealth to assess inequalities in an eye health survey: An example from the Indian Sunderbans

MOHANTY, Soumya
et al
December 2019

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The Sunderbans are a group of delta islands that straddle the border between India and Bangladesh. For people living on the Indian side, health services are scarce and the terrain makes access to what is available difficult. In 2018, the international non-governmental organisation Sightsavers and their partners conducted a population-based survey of visual impairment and coverage of cataract and spectacle services, supplemented with tools to measure equity in eye health by wealth, disability, and geographical location. Two-stage cluster sampling was undertaken to randomly select 3868 individuals aged 40+ years, of whom 3410 were examined

 

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Dec; 16(23): 4869

doi: 10.3390/ijerph16234869

TT Tracker app aims to improve surgical outcomes and patient care

JENSEN, Kimberley
et al
November 2019

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Trichiasis (TT) operations are generally conducted in remote and resource-poor settings, which can make it difficult to follow-up and assess surgical outcomes. Sightsavers developed an Android-based mobile phone application, called the TT Tracker, which helps surgeons, assistants and supervisors to collect and analyse information about surgical outcomes and performance, and to determine when and where follow-up appointments are required. 

 

Community Eye Health. 2019; 31(104): 93.

Optimising the performance of frontline implementers engaged in the NTD programme in Nigeria: lessons for strengthening community health systems for universal health coverage

OLUWULE, A
et al
November 2019

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This research article focuses on optimising the performance of frontline implementers engaged with NTD programme delivery in Nigeria. Three broad themes are examined: technical support, social support and incentives

Qualitative data was collected through participatory stakeholder workshops. Eighteen problem-focused workshops and 20 solution-focussed workshops were held  in 12 selected local government areas (LGA) across two states in Nigeria, Ogun and Kaduna States

 

Human Resources for Health, 2019 Nov 1;17(1):79

doi: 10.1186/s12960-019-0419-8

Estimating the intracluster correlation coefficient for trachomatous inflammation-follicular in population-based trachoma prevalence surveys: results from a meta-regression of 261 standardised pre-intervention surveys in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria.

MACLEOD, Colin
et al
September 2019

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This study used a parametric bootstrap model to estimate intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in 1-9 year-olds, from 261 population-based trachoma prevalence surveys completed using standardised GTMP methodologies in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria from 2012-2016.

Results from this study were used to draw up the most recent WHO 2018 recommendations on design effect (DE) estimates for sample size calculations for survey

 

American Journal of Epidemiology, 2019 Sep 11. pii: kwz196

doi: 10.1093/aje/kwz196

 

 

Operational adaptations of the trachoma pre-validation surveillance strategy employed in Ghana: successes and challenges

SENYONJO, Laura
et al
September 2019

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In 2009 Ghana began to design a trachoma pre-validation surveillance plan, based on then-current WHO recommendations. The plan aimed to identify active trachoma resurgence and identify and manage trichiasis cases, through both active and passive surveillance approaches. This paper outlines and reviews the adaptations made by Ghana between 2011 and 2016

Infectious Diseases of Poverty volume 8, Article number: 78 (2019)

Integrating face washing into a school-based, handwashing behavior change program to prevent trachoma in Turkana, Kenya

TIDWELL, James
et al
August 2019

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Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness, and facial cleanliness has been associated with reduced odds of trachomatous inflammation and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  This study reports on the results of a program integrating face washing into a school-based handwashing promotion program in Turkana County, Kenya

 

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019 Oct;101(4):767-773

doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0205.

Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) and disability and equity survey. Nampula, Mozambique

SIGHTSAVERS
July 2019

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This report describes the findings of a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) conducted in Muchinga Province, Zambia in 2017.

The prevalence of blindness was just over 4% and the major cause was cataract, followed by glaucoma. Only 37% of people who require cataract surgery have received it, meaning there is an urgent need to scale up access to cataract surgical services in the province.

In addition to the standard RAAB questionnaire, an additional two sets of questions were administered to the participants to understand their disability and socioeconomic status: the Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability (WGSS) and the Equity Tool (ET)

Sightsavers' approach to making health services inclusive for everyone

Sightsavers
April 2019

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Sightsavers has produced a new film that sets out our work to make health care services accessible and inclusive for everyone. It focuses on our programmes in Bhopal, India and Nampula, Mozambique. This highlights how we work and share learnings globally, but also shows how programmes can be made locally relevant by working with partners with direct experience.

The film showcases some of the people who work hard to make our inclusive health programmes a success, from Sightsavers experts and government health workers to leaders of disabled people’s organisations.

To find out more our inclusive health work and how we are developing best practice in terms of inclusive health programmes, visit our website: https://www.sightsavers.org/disability/health/

Tikule limodzi: Let’s grow together. The impact caregiver training has on children with disabilities in Malawi - Baseline report

MURPHY, Rachel
et al
December 2017

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Tikule Limodzi (‘Let’s Grow Together’) was a three-year (2015 to 2018) multi-agency study that sought to promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in community-based childcare centres (CBBCs) in a rural district of Southern Malawi. The main purpose of the project was to explore ways of developing the skills of caregivers to support children with disabilities in CBCCs through the use of inclusive strategies and resources. This mixed-method study also sought to share evidence that will aid the Malawi government and other stakeholders to better understand the complex dynamics that ‘enable’ or ‘inhibit’ quality early childhood development (ECD) for children with disabilities. 

This report presents the baseline pre-intervention data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial (CRCT) of a caregiver training intervention targeting CBCCs in Thyolo district in the Southern Region of Malawi. The trial involved 48 CBCCs randomly allocated to the control and intervention arms (24 CBCCs each). The training (intervention) consisted of a two-week training programme based on the basic National ECD Caregiver Training Programme, with additional modules on how to improve the inclusion and participation of children with disabilities in CBCCs. The baseline data was collected between December 2016 and May 2017. The aim of the trial was to measure changes in child development outcomes (equal to actual age), school readiness, caregiver satisfaction and motivation, changes in CBBC environment and routine and structure, as well as caregiver retention.

Ensuring universal access to eye health in urban slums in the Global South: the case of Bhopal (India).

PREGEL, Andrea
et al
October 2017

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In the context of its Urban Eye Health Programme in Bhopal (India), Sightsavers launched a pilot approach aimed at developing an Inclusive Eye Health (IEH) model and IEH Minimum Standards.

Accessibility audits were conducted in a tertiary eye hospital and four primary vision centres located within urban slums, addressing the accessibility of physical infrastructures, communication and service provision. The collection and analysis of disaggregated data inform the inclusion strategy and provide a baseline to measure the impact of service provision. Trainings of eye health staff and sensitisation of decision makers on accessibility, universal design, disability and gender inclusion are organised on a regular basis.

A referral network is being built to ensure participation of women, people with disabilities and other marginalised groups, explore barriers at demand level, and guarantee wider access to eye care in the community. Finally, advocacy interventions will be developed to raise awareness in the community and mainstream disability and gender inclusion within the public health sector.

Disability-inclusive elections in Africa: a qualitative systematic review

VIRENDRAKUMAR, Bhavisha
et al
August 2017

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The aim of this systematic review was to identify, appraise and synthesise available evidence to understand:

1. What experiences and practices have already taken place in African countries to support political participation of people with disabilities and;

2. What effect they have had on the political inclusion of people with disabilities at local and national levels across the continent.

Relevant electronic databases and websites of service providers and donor organisations working in this field were searched. Authors and organisations were contacted for relevant reports. A total of 54 documents were reviewed. 

Limitations of the literature included in this review suggest that activities aiming at increased political participation of people with disabilities in Africa are poorly documented.

 

Voices of the marginalised

2016

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The aim of 'Voices of the Marginalised' is to bring the perspectives of those who live in poverty or who are highly marginalised, including those with disabilities, older people and people living with mental health problems, into post-2015 policymaking. Focusing on Bangladesh and Tanzania, people with disabilities and older people were asked to become researchers themselves, and were trained to collect and analyse stories from peers in rural and urban areas.

Hear my voice: old age and disability are not a curse. A community-based participatory study gathering the lived experiences of persons with disabilities and older people in Tanzania

MRISHO, Mwifadhi
FAKIH, Bakar
GREENWOOD, Margo
STEFF, Marion
2016

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Community based participatory research (CBPR) was used to provide evidence on the specific nature and experiences of persons with disabilities and older people from their own perspectives in Tanzania, through the lens of social, political, economic and cultural inclusion. The aim was to strengthen efforts to provide services for and improve the lives of people living in the rural and urban settings of Nachingwea and Kibaha Urban Municipal Council. Twenty-nine peer researchers (nine persons with disabilities, 10 older people and 10 Tanzanian Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) members working in these communities) were involved in the study. A total of 106 stories were collected. Eight priority areas emerged and were chosen by peer researchers for further discussion in groups: access to education and quality learning; access to health services; issues fed back from NGOs; poverty relating to income and dependence; attitudes towards witchcraft and albinism; relationship difficulties and marriage breakdowns; sexual violence and gender issues; poor treatment from family
 

Sightsavers disability disaggregation project : India mid-term review report

JOLLEY, Emma
THIVILLIER, Pauline
September 2015

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‘This Mid Term Review (MTR) report contains information on the first six months (July – March) of the disability disaggregation pilot project taking place in Bhopal, India. The report includes information on the processes in place at the different locations to collect data disaggregated by disability and initial results. It also captures attitude, knowledge and experiences of programme managers, decision makers and data collectors around disability, their challenges, and the experiences of Sightsavers’ implementing staff’

Sightsavers empowerment and inclusion : strategic framework 2015

SIGHTSAVERS
September 2015

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This document is the Sightsavers’ inclusion strategic framework 2015. It explains their rights-based approach of mainstreaming disability inclusion throughout their health programmes and their operations regarding education, organisational diversity and equal rights. It also shows their strategy focusing on the empowerment of people with disabilities in electoral process and in the financial sector

Disability disaggregation of data : baseline report

JOLLEY, Emma
THIVILLIER, Pauline
SMITH, Fred
December 2014

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“This baseline report contains information on the initial steps (prior to the start of data collection) undertaken to include disaggregation of data by disability in two projects in Tanzania and India. The report includes information on project selection, development of an Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) plan, adaptation of data collection tools and training of Country Office staff, partners and data collectors. This baseline also captures the knowledge, attitudes and practices of programme managers, decision makers and data collectors around disability, the availability of data, and the experiences of Sightsavers’ implementing staff”

Note: The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

“We can also change” Piloting participatory research with persons with disabilities and older people in Bangladesh

BURNS, Danny
OSWALD, Katy
November 2014

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Sightsavers, HelpAge International, ADD International and Alzheimer’s Disease International worked together with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) to bring the perspectives of those who live in poverty or who are highly marginalised into post-2015 policy making. The aim of the research was to understand better the experiences of social, political and economic exclusion of persons with disabilities and older people in Bangladesh from their own perspectives. Two groups (community and NGO) of peer researchers collected 70 stories from poor and/or excluded persons with disabilities and older people from each of the two sites: Bhashantek, an urban slum in Dhaka; and Cox’s Bazar, a rural area in southeast Bangladesh. From the stories collected and analysed in workshops, the peer researchers identified 13 priority areas that affect persons with disabilities and older people: accidents and disasters; livelihoods; access to education; medical treatment; family support; exclusion and mistreatment; superstition; access to services; mobility; marriage; land; rape and sexual abuse; the role of grassroots community-based organisations. Recommendations from the researchers are made in each area. The peer research programme was evaluated and guidelines for its use are provided.

Policy paper : making inclusive education a reality

MYERS, Juliette
BAGREE, Sunit
July 2011

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This paper describes the role of inclusive education and the differences with integrated and special educations, emphasising that inclusive education being the system that should be preferred. It provides information about international rights and policies documents that support an international commitment to the education of children and highlights the key challenges and solutions of inclusive education, as well as the duties of national governments and international donors

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