Inclusion is positioned at the forefront of global educational reform. The study reported focused on a national Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programme for Inclusive Physical Education (IPE) in England. The research was designed to critically explore how CPD providers (i.e. tutors) variously conceptualised and practiced inclusion in the context of running a day-long CPD course for physical education teachers. Using qualitative methodology, data were collected via course observations (n= 27), informal interviews with tutors (n = 10), and a tutor questionnaire (n = 18). Findings suggest that although tutors’theoretical interpretations of inclusion were largely consistent with contemporary, broad understandings, there was notable variability and inherent tensions in the ways they talked about and enacted inclusion in practice. In many instances, inclusion was infused with particular perceptions about ability and ability grouping. Only a small number of tutors encouraged teachers to question and ‘disturb’ their current practices. Findings from this research extend insights into the contested nature of inclusion in contemporary PE and highlight the need for research to engage with multiple stakeholders in physical education teaching and CPD. This research reflects that CPD providers have a key role to play in extending teachers’ understandings of inclusive pedagogy
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Within the current policy and legislative context of educating students with and without special educational needs (SEN) together in one classroom, the question that is frequently raised by educators relates to how best to implement inclusion and meet the different needs of their students in class. It is also important to understand all students’ perceptions about being included in regular classrooms. Therefore, the study examined secondary school students’ perceptions about the use of inclusive teaching practices by their different subject teachers. The main objective was to report on the psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire measuring students’ perceptions about their teachers’ use of inclusive teaching practices. A total of 665 secondary grade students rated the use of inclusive teaching practices for their two main subject teachers (German, Maths or English). The study found that the 14-item scale had high reliability (α = ranging 0.81 for German to 0.87 for English teachers) and consisted of two factors (‘Personalisation’ and ‘Differentiation’). According to the students’ perceptions, all subject teachers used some inclusive practices but they were not highly inclusive. A comparison showed that Maths teachers were more inclusive compared to their German counterpart. Implications for school educators and researchers are discussed.
The Salamanca Statement is a primary point of departure in research and policy on inclusive education. However, several problems have surfaced in the 25 years since its publication. In particular, several different interpretations of the concept of inclusive education and its enactment in practice have arisen. For instance, the definition of the pupil groups in focus varies greatly. There are also varying definitions of the importance of pupil-placement, when it comes to organisation of inclusive education. Using a theoretical framework combining Bacchi’s [1999. Women, Policy and Politics. The Construction of Policy Problems. London: Sage Publications] poststructural policy-analysis and concepts from Popkewitz [2009. “Curriculum Study, Curriculum History, and Curriculum Theory: The Reason of Reason.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 41 (3): 301–319. doi:10.1080/00220270902777021], this article illustrates that The Salamanca Statement allows for a variety of interpretations of inclusion. As a policy-concept, inclusion encompasses an amalgam of political ideals, including welfare-state ideals where education is viewed as a public-good, as well as market-ideals of education as a private-good. Policies of inclusion also define the desired citizen, through categories of disadvantaged children, the ones excluded but to be included for their own good as well as for the good of the future society. The conclusions are that researchers and policy-makers should elucidate what they mean by inclusion with for instance moral- and practical arguments rather than vague references to The Salamanca Statement.
While inclusion has generally been accepted as orthodoxy, a knowledge – practice gap remains which indicates a need to focus on inclusive pedagogy. This paper explores how teachers in the Republic of Ireland primary school were supported to develop inclusive pedagogy to meet the needs of learners with special educational needs (SEN). It is underpinned by a conceptual framework which combines an inclusive pedagogical approach and key principles of effective professional development (PD) arising from the literature, which informed the development of a professional learning community (PLC) for inclusive practice in a primary school. The impact of the PD on teachers’ professional practice was explored using an evidence-based evaluation framework. Analysis of interview and observation data evidenced that engagement with inclusive pedagogy in a PLC, underpinned by critical dialogue and public sharing of work, positively impacted teacher attitudes, beliefs, efficacy and inclusive practice. This research offers a model of support for enacting inclusive pedagogy.
Research indicates that occupation is important for well-being in people with mental illness, but this has not been extensively studied among those with severe psychiatric disabilities. Social contacts may possibly play a more vital role for them. This study aimed to explore how aspects of occupation and social interaction were related with well-being factors in that group, while controlling for the influence of clinical factors. People with psychiatric disabilities living in congregate supported housing (CSH; N = 155) responded to questionnaires addressing occupation, social contacts and well-being aspects, such as subjective health, quality of life, self-mastery, and personal recovery. A comparison group with psychiatric disabilities who lived in an ordinary flat or house and received outreach housing support (N=111) completed the same instruments. The two groups were compared regarding their pattern of associations between occupation, social contacts, and well-being. Associations between occupation and well-being in the CSH group showed that general satisfaction with everyday occupations in particular was related to all aspects of well-being, whereas activity level and occupational balance were not related to well-being. The relationships were fewer and weaker, in comparison to the group in ordinary housing with outreach support. Indicators of social contacts were basically unrelated to well-being. The study contributes to occupational science by showing that the role of a high activity level for well-being, although important, should not be overemphasized. Future research should focus on narratives to get the voices of people residing in CSH and on exploration of how individually/socially performed occupations are associated with well-being.
This paper draws upon education policy sociology, and sport coaching literature, in critically examining sport coaches as policy actors. Stephen Ball and colleagues’ conceptualisation of different policy actor positions and roles provided the framework for research that investigated how eight professional swimming coaches in Victoria, Australia, interpreted and enacted disability and inclusion policy. A discourse analysis of semi-structured interviews with the eight coaches reveals the complexities associated with how and why different coaches interpret and enact disability and inclusion policy imperatives in different ways in their specific club contexts. Data are presented that shows coaches adopting multiple and hybrid policy actor positions and roles as disability and inclusion policy was interpreted, translated and ultimately, expressed as pedagogic rules and practices. Our discussion brings to the fore questions about power, agency and control in coaching, while highlighting both limits and possibilities for the enactment of inclusive disability sport policies by swimming coaches working in Victoria, Australia. In conclusion we suggest that this research illustrates that coaches are capable of enacting social change, and have some agency to do so, but at the same time appear constrained by established discourses that shape policy and give important direction to pedagogic practice. We advocate that further in-depth research is required into the coaching policy-practice nexus, particularly as it relates to the advancement of equity and inclusion.
Aim: To conduct a detailed investigation into changes in activity limitations and participation restrictions over 10 years in people with mild, moderate and severe multiple sclerosis.
Methods: This study was a 10-year longitudinal study of 264 people with multiple sclerosis living in Stockholm County, Sweden. Ten-year changes in personal and instrumental activities in daily living were assessed using the Katz Activities in Daily Living Index Extended and participation in social/lifestyle activities using the Frenchay Activities Index.
Results: While people with moderate multiple sclerosis, compared to baseline, demonstrated significantly higher proportions of dependency in most activities of personal and instrumental activities in daily living at the 10-year follow-up, the mild group primarily increased their dependency in instrumental activities and the severe group in personal activities. Significantly higher proportions of the moderate group showed restricted participation in domestic and outdoor activities whereas the mild group only showed restrictions in a few domains of participation. A majority of people with severe multiple sclerosis showed restricted participation in all social/lifestyle activities at baseline and the 10-year follow-up.
Conclusions: Prominent long-term increases in activity limitations and participation restrictions occurred across the spectrum of disease severity but was most pronounced in those more moderately affected.
It is commonly assumed that there is a lack of disability data, and development actors tend to attribute lack of data as the reason for failing to proactively plan for the inclusion of people with disabilities within their programming. However, it is an incorrect assumption that there is a lack of disability data. There is now a growing amount of disability data available. Disability, however, is a notoriously complex phenomenon, with definitions of disability varying across contexts, as well as variations in methodologies that are employed to measure it. Therefore, the body of disability data that does exist is not comprehensive, is often of low quality, and is lacking in comparability. The need for comprehensive, high quality disability data is an urgent priority bringing together a number of disability actors, with a concerted response underway. We argue here that enough data does exist and can be easily disaggregated as demonstrated by Leonard Cheshire’s Disability Data Portal and other studies using the Washington Group Question Sets developed by the Washington Group on Disability Statistics. Disaggregated data can improve planning and budgeting for reasonable accommodation to realise the human rights of people with disabilities
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3091
Purpose: This is a survey of peer-reviewed articles focussed on the causes and consequences of stigma towards persons with physical disability in Ghana.
Method: After a systematic search of the online databases EBSCOhost, ProQuest, PubMEd and Web of Science for peer-reviewed articles on disability in Ghana, 26 articles were chosen for critical review. The three main selection criteria were: the articles had to be peer-reviewed, they had to be based on interviews with Ghanaians in the field, and they had to discuss stigma and human rights. For analysis, the content of the articles was grouped under two sections: major themes (human rights, causes of stigma, consequences of stigma) and policy recommendations (economics, medical services/healthcare, affirmative action, attitudes and awareness-raising, inclusion of cultural beliefs).
Results: This review found that most of the studies attribute stigma to negative attitudes towards Ghanaians with disability, and many highlight beliefs among Ghanaians that disability is caused by spiritual and supernatural forces. The consequences, according to most authors, are social, economic and political exclusion. Policy recommendations include improving government policy, increasing funding for disability programmes, changing public attitudes, and paying attention to Ghanaian culture and tradition in designing disability interventions. While these are valid points, the authors of this paper are of the opinion that the literature also suffers from lack of a deep understanding of the historical and socio-cultural roots of supernatural beliefs in Ghana.
Conclusion: The 26 studies discussed in this review show that since 2006 very good work has been produced on disability in Ghana, especially by Ghanaian disability scholars.
It is hypothesised, however, that a full understanding of disability and stigma in Ghana must be based on deeper research into the roots of the beliefs that drive stigma. Future work therefore should focus on deepening the analysis of cultural beliefs towards disability in Ghana, in order to understand fully the roots of culturally-based disability stigma. More research into the economic causes and consequences of disability is also recommended, without which a full analysis of cultural stigma will not be possible.
Purpose: Although cerebral palsy is the most prevalent health condition linked to childhood disability in Bangladesh, support and rehabilitation for this group is limited and intervention development is slow. An initiative to address these unmet needs was the development of a parent training programme for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to explore what was important in the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy in rural Bangladesh and take their views into account in order to inform the parent/caregiver training programme.
Methods: Qualitative data was collected from12 children with cerebral palsy, between 5 - 14 years of age. The children were purposively selected from among those who attended the parent training programme. A participatory method called the ‘Feeling Dice’ was used to elicit children’s feelings about their everyday lives. The approach was easy to use, acceptable in the local context, the children enjoyed the activity, and it generated rich information.
Results: ‘Inclusion in play’ and ‘being able to attend school’ made the children happy and were their two main priorities, yet were not key issues for parents. The children were frustrated by their dependence on others for day-to-day activities such as feeding, bathing, and transport to school. Children also played an important part in encouraging their parents to attend the training course.
Conclusion: This study showed that valuable information can be gathered from children with cerebral palsy by using a simple and adaptable participatory research tool. Children’s views and priorities sometimes differed from those of their parents and carers, and could be useful for developing more relevant and valid interventions. Children need to be recognised as important ‘agents of change’ within their own rehabilitation. This methodology is in harmony with the UNCRPD recommendations, and supports inclusive and rights-based intervention development.
Purpose: The study aimed to determine the impact of communication disorders on discrimination against people who are deaf in the workplace, as well as to find the differences in study participants’ opinions.
Method: The study sample consisted of 171 respondents from different industries in Bosnia-Herzegovina- 57 workers who were deaf, 57 workers who could hear, and 57 managers. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in the survey. The opinions of the respondents were elicited through a questionnaire which consisted of 15 statements. The interviews of workers and managers focussed on the presence of discrimination against deaf workers in the workplace. Responses of respondents were converted to quantified values using analysis of discrimination group. The significance of statistical differences among the samples tested is defined at 0.01 level of significance using F-Test.
Results: Discriminant analysis tested the null hypothesis that respondents’ answers do not differ regarding discrimination against deaf workers in the workplace. However differences were found between the groups that felt deaf workers did not have equal position at work in comparison to their hearing co-workers. Participants mentioned a number of barriers in workplaces. Workers were of the opinion that there was significant discrimination in the workplace (p>0.01) between groups of participants.
Conclusion: There are statistically significant differences in the opinions of respondents regarding statements that workers who are deaf cannot hold positions equal to their co-workers who have regular hearing.
Purpose: The study aimed to assess the barriers faced by children with disability, both qualitatively and quantitatively, from the perspectives of caregivers and dental practitioners.
Methods: A concurrent mixed method design was used. A sample of 195 dentists and 100 caregivers was selected through convenience sampling. A prevalidated questionnaire was used to assess the barriers faced by the children with disability in their care. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers. Descriptive statistics were computed using SPSS version 20 and thematic analysis of qualitative data was done using NVivo software.
Results: 195 dentists and 100 caregivers responded to the survey. Majority of practising dentists (83.7%) reported inadequate training in handling children with special needs, while caregivers (38%) reported fear of dentist among the children as major barriers experienced in utilising dental services.
Conclusion and Implications: This study helps to identify the barriers faced by children with special healthcare needs. The findings highlight the need for hands-on training to be incorporated into the dental curriculum. It also suggests that improvements be made in dental clinics to accommodate these children in comfort. Due to limitations of the study, it is suggested that there is a need for further longitudinal studies that involve other family members of children with disability.
Purpose: Physical accessibility is one of the fundamental rights of wheelchair users in order to ensure their integration into society. After Bangladesh ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on November 30, 2007, there has been a paradigm shift in the government’s approach to ensure the welfare and rights of persons with disabilities through legislative and policy actions. This study assesses how accommodative the public buildings are for wheelchair users in Khulna, Bangladesh.
Method: All the public buildings in Khulna city - including government offices, public schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, libraries, post offices and court buildings - were visited to assess the presence and suitability of facilities for wheelchair users, such as accessible parking, ramps, elevators, doors, and essential interior facilities like water closets and drinking-water fountains. Bangladesh has no specific accessibility guidelines document, but accessibility requirements have been included in the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 2008. The study made its assessment using an abridged form of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and BNBC 2008.
Results: Only 6.7% (5) of the 75 public buildings were found suitable for wheelchair users. There is scope for modifications to be made in 28% (21) of the buildings which are currently unsuitable for wheelchair users.
Conclusion: The study revealed that public buildings are, in general, not very accommodative of wheelchair users. There is a need for modifications in infrastructure to ensure inclusive development of these individuals.
n the 1970s, grassroots disability movements in many countries changed the thinking around disability and disability politics. Nonetheless, they were also part of larger political upheavals in the western world. How were they inspired by the socialist, feminist, and gay and lesbian movements? In addition, how did they relate to non-disabled allies? Organisations in Denmark and Sweden are investigated and compared to early disability-rights movements in the United Kingdom. Independently of each other, all groups developed materialist models, although only in Sweden and the United Kingdom did this lead to a linguistic distinction between ‘impairment’ and ‘disability’. Danish activists would rather use provocative language, while developing a social understanding of disability. They were also the only ones to discuss gender and sexuality. There are more similarities than differences between the movements, although the Danish specificities contributed to improvements in how Danes with disabilities can develop a positive sex life.
- In the 1970s, new political ideas grew about ways of living, equality between the sexes, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual freedom. New groups started to talk about how to understand disability.
- This article investigates whether the new disability groups in Denmark and Sweden talked about these ideas and whether they involved non-disabled people.
- Danish and Swedish disability groups are compared to early disability rights organisations in the United Kingdom. The Danish and Swedish disability groups were more open to non-disabled members than groups in the United Kingdom.
- The article also found that the Danish group discussed sexuality a lot. In Sweden and the United Kingdom, the disability groups did not talk about sex at all.
Access to an appropriate wheelchair is a human right. Only between 5–15% of people who need a wheelchair have access to one. One of the key barriers to access is the lack of appropriately trained rehabilitation professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate basic manual wheelchair provision knowledge in final-year physiotherapy undergraduate students in two programs in Colombia.
Materials and methods:
Students took the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals Wheelchair Service Provision – Basic Test which was administered online and in Spanish. The minimum score to pass the test is 70%; it assesses seven domains: Assessment; Prescription; Products; Fitting; User training; Follow-up, maintenance, and repairs; and Process.
Results and conclusions:
One-hundred sixteen students took the test and no one passed the test. The highest median domain scores were in Assessment and Process while the lowest were in Fitting and Products. The limitations of this study include that this sample does not represent all physiotherapy programmes or students in Colombia, there may be potential errors in the Spanish translation of the outcome measure, and students encountered Internet connectivity issues during the test that may have impacted their scores. Immediate interventions are required to improve teaching and students’ learning outcomes related to basic manual wheelchair provision in these two programs. This study may serve as a foundation for future regional or national studies that assess the situation of wheelchair provision training in rehabilitation programs that will inform improvement actions. This manuscript is also available in Spanish as Supplemental Material.
Purpose: To compare family and functional outcome in infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy, after receiving the family centred programme “Coping with and Caring for infants with special needs (COPCA)” or typical infant physiotherapy.
Materials and methods: Forty-three infants at very high risk were included before 9 months corrected age and randomly assigned to one year COPCA (n = 23) or typical infant physiotherapy (n = 20). Family and infant outcome were assessed before and during the intervention. Physiotherapy intervention sessions were analysed quantitatively for process analysis. Outcome was evaluated with non-parametric tests and linear mixed-effect models.
Results: Between-group comparisons revealed no differences in family and infant outcomes. Within-group analysis showed that family’s quality of life improved over time in the COPCA-group. Family empowerment was positively associated with intervention elements, including “caregiver coaching.”
Conclusions: One year of COPCA or typical infant physiotherapy resulted in similar family and functional outcomes. Yet, specific intervention elements, e.g., coaching, may increase empowerment of families of very high risk infants and may influence quality of life, which emphasizes the importance of family centred services.
Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to explore the literature on experiences and perspectives of patients with hip fractures and their caregivers during transitions in care.
Methods: Seven databases were searched for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 3 July 2018. Grey literature was also searched.
Results: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria. The scoping review found that patients and caregivers encounter several challenges during care transitions including the following: lack of information sharing, role confusion and disorganized discharge planning. Common suggestions reported in the literature for improving care transitions were: increasing written communication, offering a patient representative role, using technology for knowledge dissemination and increasing geriatrician involvement.
Conclusions: The results of this scoping review provide a useful foundation from which to build strategies to address challenges such as lack of information sharing, role confusion and disorganized discharge planning experienced by patients and caregivers during care transitions. Further research needs to explore the development of strategies to promote patient-centered care especially during discharge from an acute care facility.
Purpose: Restrictions to activity and participation in persons with cerebral palsy or spina bifida are often due to both motor and executive dysfunction. Hence methods focusing solely on motor issues are not enough to enhance participation. The Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance ApproachTM is a performance-based approach offering clients opportunities to create their own strategies to learn skills. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe experiences of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance Approach as reported by young adults with cerebral palsy or spina bifida.
Methods: Qualitative content analysis was used. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the 10 participants aged 16–28, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up.
Results: The participants described how the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance Approach enhanced their self-efficacy. Four categories describing the participants’ experiences emerged: “CO-OP is a different way of learning”, “CO-OP sometimes puts a strain on me”, “CO-OP supports my way of thinking and doing” and “CO-OP boosts me”.
Conclusion: The young adults expressed that the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance intervention, although sometimes challenging, was worth the effort because it provided them with an opportunity to master everyday-life problems by using meta-cognitive thinking, which enhanced their self-efficacy.
Purpose: Participation in activities of everyday life is seen as main goal of rehabilitation after a stroke and return to work is an important factor to consider for the substantial number of persons having a stroke at working age. The current study aims to investigate whether returning to work would predict self-perceived participation and autonomy in everyday life after a stroke, from a long-term perspective.
Materials and methods: Persons with first-ever stroke at age 18–63 years in 2009–2010, Gothenburg, were included. As 5-year follow-up, the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire was sent out, investigating self-perceived participation/autonomy in five levels, and work status was investigated from national sick-absence registers. Prediction of work on participation/autonomy was investigated with logistic regression.
Results: A total of 109 participants (49%) responded to the questionnaire. The majority (69–94%) perceived very good participation/autonomy in all domains and 59% were working 5 years after stroke. Working was a significant predictor of high participation/autonomy in all domains of the questionnaire.
Conclusions: Being able to return to work after a stroke seems to be important for self-perceived participation/autonomy. This emphasizes the importance of work-oriented information and rehabilitation after a stroke at working age.
Purpose: The efficacy of a community-based mentoring program for adolescents with a visual impairment vs. care-as-usual was tested on social participation including satisfaction with social support.
Materials and methods: Adolescents (15–22 years; 46% boys) were randomized to an intervention group with mentors with visual impairment (N = 25), an intervention group with mentors without visual impairment (N = 26), or care-as-usual (N = 25). One-on-one mentoring activities regarded school/work, leisure activities, and social relationships.
Results and conclusions: Multilevel growth modelling revealed no effect of mentoring on changes in social participation compared to the care-as-usual group (participation [95% CI –0.30, 0.21, d = 0.1]; social participation composite [95% CI –0.24, 0.26, d = 0.24]). Mentees matched to mentors with visual impairments increased more on satisfaction with their social support compared to mentees matched to mentors without impairments and the care-as-usual group [95% CI 0.02, 0.49, d = 0.38]. Age, characteristics of the impairment, and number of match meetings were not associated with change in social participation during the mentoring program. This evaluation showed no benefit of mentoring for social participation of adolescents with a visual impairment. The value of mentors and mentees sharing the same disability needs further investigation. This trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register NTR4768.